Schinus

Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Schinus
Species: molle, terebinthifolius, aroeira
Synonyms:

Schinus angustifolius, S. areira, S. bituminosus, S. huigan,
S. occidentalis, S. antiarthriticus, S. mellisii, Sarcotheca bahiensis

Common Names: Brazilian peppertree, Peruvian peppertree, California peppertree, aroeira, aroeira salsa, escobilla, Peruvian mastic tree, mastic-tree, aguaribay, American pepper, anacahuita, castilla, false pepper, gualeguay, Jesuit's balsam, molle del Peru, mulli, pepper tree, pimentero, pimientillo, pirul
Parts Used: Fruit, bark, leaf
Plant Description: Brazilian peppertree is a shrubby tree with narrow, spiky leaves. It grows 4 to 10 m tall, with a trunk 25 to 35 cm in diameter. It produces an abundance of small flowers formed in panicles which bear a great many small, flesh-colored, berry-like fruits in December and January. It is indigenous to South and Central America, and can be found in semitropical and tropical regions of the United States and Africa. Three separate species of trees are used interchangeably (all called "peppertrees") in both North and South America: Schinus molle, Schinus aroeira, and Schinus terebinthifolius.
All parts of the tree have high oil and essential oil contents that produce a spicy, aromatic scent. The leaves of the Brazilian peppertree have such a high oil content that leaf pieces jerk and twist when placed in hot water as the oil is released. The berries, which have a peppery flavor, are used in syrups, vinegar, and beverages in Peru; are added to Chilean wines; and are dried and ground up for a pepper substitute in the tropics. The dried berries have also been used as an adulterant of black pepper in some countries.
Documented Properties & Actions: Analgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antiviral, astringent, balsamic, cytotoxic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hypotensive, insecticide, purgative, stomachic, tonic, uterine stimulant, vulnerary.
Plant Chemicals Include: Amyrin, behenic acid, bergamont, bicyclogermacrene, bourbonene, cadinene, cadinol, calacorene, calamenediol, calamenene, camphene, car-3-ene, carvacrol, caryophyllene, cerotic acid, copaene, croweacin, cubebene, cyanidins, cymene, elemene, elemol, elemonic acid, eudesmol, fisetin, gallic acid, geraniol butyrate, germacrene, germacrone, guaiene, gurjunene, heptacosanoic acid, humulene, laccase, lanosta, limonene, linalool, linoleic acid, malvalic acid, masticadienoic acid, masticadienonalic acid, masticadienonic acid, muurolene, muurolol, myrcene, nerol hexanoate, octacosanoic acid, oleic acid, paeonidin, palmitic acid, pentacosanoic acid, phellandrene, phellandrene, phenol, pinene, piperine, piperitol, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, quercitrin, raffinose, sabinene, sitosterol, spathulene, terpinene, terpineol, terpinolene, tricosanoic acid

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